Who were the Aryans? Which was the original abode of the Aryans? When and how did Aryans come to India? And how did they spread in India? What such valuable thing did the Aryan give to Indian civilization and culture? Which Indians are still very proud of. If you want to know the correct answers to all these questions, then keep reading this article till the end.
Introduction To Aryans
The Aryans came to India from Central Asia through Afghanistan around 1500 BC. He had established a very high quality civilization in India. Their rulers ruled according to the wishes of the subjects. Women were highly respected in the society, they had equal rights as men. Varna division in the society was done on the basis of occupation and not on the basis of caste.
People lived a very simple and pious life. They worshiped the natural forces as gods. Varuna and Indra were their main deities. They used to perform various types of yagyas to please their deities. His economic life was also prosperous. Agriculture and animal husbandry were their main occupations. Trade was in the form of exchange of goods.
Many changes took place in the political, social, religious and economic life of the Aryans during the later Vedic period. The Aryans gave a valuable gift to the entire human race by creating Vedic literature. If the Indian people fully embraced the high ideals established by the Aryans of the Vedic period, India would indeed become a heaven on earth.
Who were the Aryans?
Aryans are counted among the most civilized caste in the world. The word Arya means superior. Aryan were tall, fair in complexion, strong body and very brave. Thousands of years ago they left their place of residence and went to different parts of the world. He greatly influenced the civilization and culture of these countries. Even today many people of Europe and Asia take pride in calling the time Aryan.
The original abode of the Aryans
There is a difference of opinion among historians in this regard. A brief description of the main theories prevailing about the original abode of the Aryans is given below.
1. Sapta Sindhu Siddhanta:– Dr. A.C. Das in his book “Rigvedic India” and Dr. Sampurnanand in his book “Adi Desh of Aryans” has tried to prove that Arya Sapta Sindhu Pradesh (Punjab and North-West Frontier Province) , Kashmir, Kabul and Kandahar). He has presented many arguments in support of his opinion.
(i) The description of only seven Indus regions is found in Rigvedic. If the Aryans had come from outside, it must have been mentioned in the Rigvedic.
(ii) The names of 7 rivers are mentioned in Rigvedic, they have been flowing for thousands of years in the Sapta Sindhu region.
(iii) All the trees, animals and birds which are mentioned in Rigvedic are found in the Sapta Sindhu region.
(iv) It is mentioned in the Rigvedic that the main food of the Aryans was wheat, barley and rice etc. All these were produced in large quantities in the region of Saptasindhu.
(v) There is no indication anywhere in the Rigvedic that the ancestors of the Aryans lived in any region other than the region of Saptasindhu.
Some historians do not accept the Sapta Sindhu theory. his statement that
(i) If the Aryans were residents of the region of Saptasindhu, what was the need for them to leave such fertile region?
(ii) It is known from the battles between Aryans and Dasas in Rigvedic that Aryans came to India from abroad.
(iii) There is mention of some such geographical parts and trees etc. in Rigvedic which were not in the Sapta Sindhu region. It is clear from these things that Aryans came to India from abroad.
2. North Pole Theory:- Bal Gangadhar Tilak, the famous scholar of India, in his famous books “Arctic Home in the Vedanta” has tried to prove that the Aryans were from the North Pole region. After a thorough study of Rigveda and Zenda Avesta, he has concluded that all the natural scenes described in these were found in those days at the North Pole.
It is mentioned in the Rigveda that it used to be very cold at the original place of Aryans. There were 6 months of day and 6 months of night. This was possible only in the North Pole region.
Geologists have proved that the weather here was very pleasant in ancient times and living here was not difficult. Due to gradual geographical changes, when this region started to cool down, the Aryans left it. Some went to other European countries and some settled in India.
But some historians do not accept Tilak’s theory. They say that nowhere in the Rigveda is there any indication of the North Pole region and Aryans coming to India from outside. Apart from this, the Usha which has been described in the Rigveda. It cannot be the Usha of the North Pole region. The reason for this is that in one mantra of Rigveda, it is said that this dawn rises in the east while in the other mantra it is in the west. In the North Pole region, the heat rises from the south.
3. Theory of Tibet:- Swami Dayanand, the founder of Arya Samaj, in his book Satyarth Prakash has described Tibet as the original abode of Aryans. According to him, these people were worshipers of the sun and fire because they were residents of a cold country.
This cold region could only be Tibet. Apart from this, all the trees and animals and birds mentioned in the Rigveda were available in Tibet at that time. Gradually their population increased, so it became difficult for them to survive in this small country and settled in their neighboring country. The climate and land here were favorable to them.
Dr Sampurnanand has refuted this theory. They write that the worship of Sun and Agni is not a proof that their country is cold-headed. Although it is very cold in the North Pole region, the Eskimos here do not worship fire. Although it is not cold in Piru, the residents here worship the Sun. In addition, the population of Tibet belongs to the Mongol race and not to the Aryan race.
4. Theory of Austria-Hungary:- Dr. P. Gilles and MacDonnell have propounded this theory that the original abode of the Aryans was Austria-Hungary. He writes that the languages of these regions were closely related to the Sanskrit language.
Second, the people here lived in the village, their main occupation was agriculture and animal husbandry. He was familiar with animals like cow, bull, dog, boar and horse, while he was not aware of elephant and lion. He had no knowledge about the ocean.
He had a good knowledge of oak and cane trees. All these features are fully consistent with the characteristics of the life of the Aryans given in the Rigveda. Apart from these, the description of the natural scenery here is found from the description given in the Rigveda. From here the Aryans went towards Central Asia and India.
Modern scholars do not attach much importance to this theory. He says that it cannot be said with certainty in the Rigveda that Austria-Hungary is the only country in the whole world in which the characteristics of Aryans are present.
5. Theory of Central Asia:- Professor Max Müller, a famous German scholar, in his book “Speech on Linguistics” has tried to prove that the ancestors of the Aryans lived in Central Asia. From here they went to other parts of the world, it is possible that due to the increase in population and lack of food, they set out in search of different areas. The descendants of the branch of Aryans that came to India were called Indian Aryans.
Many historians do not accept the theory of Madheshiya. He says that there is no indication of Central Asia anywhere in the Rigveda. If the Aryans were the original inhabitants of Central Asia, then even today their descendants must have been in Central Asia, but it is not so.
6. Some other theories: – In addition to the above theories, some other theories are also prevalent about the original abode of the Aryans. The German scholar Panken has tried to prove on the basis of the characteristics of the Aryan race that the original abode of the Aryans was North Germany.
The Naihring considered Ukraine to be the original abode of the Aryans. According to Koino and some other foreign scholars, the Aryans were residents of the plains of the Ural Mountains. But most historians do not recognize these theories.
7. Universal theory: – After critically studying the prevailing theories regarding the original abode of the Aryans, we now accept Professor Max Müller’s theory of Central Asia as universal. The following arguments are presented in support of this theory.
(i) Most of the gods and goddesses worshiped by the people of Central Asia were also worshiped by the Aryans. Thus it is clear that the Aryans lived in Central Asia before their arrival in India.
(ii) The main occupation of the Aryans was animal husbandry. This means that the Aryans must have been engaged in animal husbandry even before they came to India. A suitable place for grazing cattle could be the vast pastures of Central Asia. It is clear from this that the Aryans must have initially lived in Central Asia. Due to lack of fodder, they must have migrated from there to other countries.
(iii) Reading the Vedas of the Aryans and the famous religious books “Jenda Avesta” of the Iranians, it is known that the ancestors of both lived together. Perhaps this country will be Central Asia only.
(iv) The geographical location, the natural scenery and the description of animals and birds are found in the texts of the Aryans, they are all found in Central Asia, so their original place was Central Asia.
(v) The texts of the Aryans show that the Aryans were not initially familiar with the ocean. Central Asia is the only place that is far away from the sea.
(vi) Most historians agree with the theory of Central Asia.
Arrival and Spread of Aryans in India
There are different opinions among historians regarding when and how the Aryans came to India. According to Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Aryans came to India in 6000 BC. Jacobi has fixed its time as 5000 BC. According to Max Müller, the Aryans came to India between 1200 BC and 1000 BC.
Most modern historians place the arrival of the Aryans in India between 1500 BC and 1000 BC. From the rivers and trends mentioned in the Rigveda, it can be inferred that the Aryans entered India from Afghanistan. They did not come together once, but in many groups for many years continuously.
After entering India, the Aryans fought for a long time between different peoples (tribes) and Aryans. Bharata, Puru, Yadu, Anush, and Tuvarshu were notable people of the Aryans. The Rigveda mentions the “war of ten kings”. Sudas, the ruler of the Indian dynasty, appointed Vishwamitra as his court priest. He gave commendable help to King Sudas in winning many wars. Later, King Sudas removed Vishwamitra and appointed Vashishtha to the post of priest. Due to this both the priests became rivals of each other.
Vishwamitra formed a union of 10 kings and attacked King Sudas. King Sudas encountered this union on the banks of the river Purushni (present-day Ravi). Sudas was victorious in this war. Due to this important victory, his respect increased greatly.
In the spread of Aryans to India, there were many wars with the native people who were called by the names of Arya-Anarya, Dasyu-dasa, Dravida and Pani etc. Most of the Aryan wars took place over the cow. Aryans were victorious because of their fine weapons and fast moving chariots. Thus they settled in India.
Aryans had initially settled in the Sapta Sindhu region. It got its name because seven rivers Sutlej, Vyas, Ravi, Chenab, Jelam, Sindhu and Saraswati flowed here. Aryans considered the Saraswati river to be the most sacred river. Therefore, the Aryans composed many mantras of Rigveda on the banks of this river.
Due to the composition of Rigveda, the Aryans named the Sapta Sindhu region as Brahmavrat. Due to the increase in population, it started moving towards the Gangetic plain after 9th century BC. In the later Vedic period, the spread of the Aryans from the Himalayan Mountains to the Narmada River and from the Indus River to Bengal had spread all over northern India.
Vedic literature was the most valuable contribution to the Indian culture and civilization of the Aryans. It is considered a storehouse of priceless knowledge. It describes the solution of spiritual and other problems of life. Undoubtedly, the main purpose of the creation of Vedic literature was religious, but it also throws considerable light on the social, economic and political life of the people of the Vedic and later Vedic periods. Apart from this, it is one of our main sources for the creation of ancient Indian history. This entire literature is written in Sanskrit language.
Gift of the Aryans
1. Political gift:- The contribution of Aryans was very important in the political field. He taught us to govern democratically. Now-a-days we see that Aryans were well acquainted thousands of years ago with the democracy which is going on in the world to establish the democracy between the government and the people.
The main objective of the king was the welfare of his subjects. He treated his subjects like a father. If a king was proved to be a tyrant, then an organization called Sabha and Samiti could remove him from the rule. In this way both these institutions functioned like today’s Parliament.
The Aryan kings did not keep all the powers in their possession. He believed in local governance. The villager worked independently in the village. This type of administration is still seen in the village. The Aryans presented their ideal of war, they told us that unarmed and sleeping enemies, women and children should not be attacked.
2. Social gift:- The contribution of Aryans is very important in the social field. The family of Aryans was father-headed. The eldest male in the family was the head of the household. He supervised all the affairs of the family and all the members of the family obeyed his orders. Thus the Aryans taught us to respect elders.
The Aryans also taught us to live together in a joint family. This joint family system is still prevalent in India. He taught us to respect women. He told us that women should be treated as equal to men and they should be given maximum education. He did not believe in the evil practices of today’s social evils like child marriage, sati system and purdah system. He also taught to respect the guests more and more.
3. Religious gift:- The contribution of Aryans in the religious field is commendable. The religion of the Aryans was very simple and also insisted on leading a holy life. Although the Aryans worshiped many gods and goddesses, they considered them to be the form of one God.
Yagyas were performed to please the gods. Religious rituals were performed by the oldest person in the house. Women actively participated in these and any religious work was considered incomplete without their cooperation.
The Aryans considered it their ultimate duty to serve the poor and downtrodden. Thus the Aryans presented high ideals regarding religion. Aryans believed in the principles of freedom of movement and Karma. These principles still have a prominent place in Hinduism. The worship of gods and goddesses worshiped by the Aryans is still prevalent in Indian society.
4. Cultural gift:- The contribution of Aryans is most important in the field of culture. The Vedic literature composed by him is considered a storehouse of knowledge. Solutions to all the problems of life have been presented in these texts. Even today these texts are read with great reverence.
The Aryans introduced the Sanskrit language to the Indians, which was prevalent in ancient times for centuries. Even today Hindus consider this language sacred. This later gave rise to many other Indian languages, all these languages are still prevalent today.
5. Economic gift:- The contribution of the Aryan people in the economic field proved to be very important. He took control of a vast area by clearing the forests. Trade also flourished due to good agriculture. As a result, many powerful states came into existence in India which remained established for centuries.
They told us that the land should be divided in such a way that there is no difference between the rich and the poor. He informed us about keeping the Shamlat land after seeing the common interests in the village. The occupations prevalent in the time of Aryans such as agriculture, animal husbandry, trade, making clothes and making jewelery are prevalent even today.
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